Ubuntu14.04+RabbitMQ3.6.3+Golang的最佳实践

Ubuntu14.04+RabbitMQ3.6.3+Golang的最佳实践

目录

1、RabbitMQ介绍

1.1、什么是RabbitMQ?

  RabbitMQ 是由 LShift 提供的一个 Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) 的开源实现,由以高性能、健壮以及可伸缩性出名的 Erlang 写成,因此也是继承了这些优点。

1.2、什么是AMQP?

  AMQP,即Advanced Message Queuing Protocol,高级消息队列协议,是应用层协议的一个开放标准,为面向消息的中间件设计。它从生产者接收消息并递送给消费者,在这个过程中,根据规则进行路由,缓存与持久化。

  AMQP的主要特征是面向消息、队列、路由(包括点对点和发布/订阅)、可靠性、安全。

  RabbitMQ是一个开源的AMQP实现,服务器端用Erlang语言编写,支持多种客户端,如:Python、Ruby、.NET、Java、JMS、C、PHP、ActionScript、XMPP、STOMP等,支持AJAX。用于在分布式系统中存储转发消息,在易用性、扩展性、高可用性等方面表现不俗。

  而在AMQP中主要有两个组件:Exchange 和 Queue (在 AMQP 1.0 里还会有变动),如下图所示,绿色的 X 就是 Exchange ,红色的是 Queue ,这两者都在 Server 端,又称作 Broker ,这部分是 RabbitMQ 实现的,而蓝色的则是客户端,通常有 Producer 和 Consumer 两种类型:

  mshk.top

1.3、RabbitMQ的基础概念

  • Broker:简单来说就是消息队列服务器实体
  • Exchange:消息交换机,它指定消息按什么规则,路由到哪个队列
  • Queue:消息队列载体,每个消息都会被投入到一个或多个队列
  • Binding:绑定,它的作用就是把exchange和queue按照路由规则绑定起来
  • Routing Key:路由关键字,exchange根据这个关键字进行消息投递
  • vhost:虚拟主机,一个broker里可以开设多个vhost,用作不同用户的权限分离
  • producer:消息生产者,就是投递消息的程序
  • consumer:消息消费者,就是接受消息的程序
  • channel:消息通道,在客户端的每个连接里,可建立多个channel,每个channel代表一个会话任务

1.4、RabbitMQ的特性

  • 可靠性:包括消息持久化,消费者和生产者的消息确认
  • 灵活路由:遵循AMQP协议,支持多种Exchange类型实现不同路由策略
  • 分布式:集群的支持,包括本地网络与远程网络
  • 高可用性:支持主从备份与镜像队列
  • 多语言支持:支持多语言的客户端
  • WEB界面管理:可以管理用户权限,exhange,queue,binding,与实时监控
  • 访问控制:基于vhosts实现访问控制
  • 调试追踪:支持tracing,方便调试

2、RabbitMQ的官网在哪里?

  http://www.rabbitmq.com/

3、RabbitMQ在哪里下载?

  http://www.rabbitmq.com/download.html

4、如何安装RabbitMQ

4.1、通过安装RabbitMQ的源来安装

  在Ubuntu上安装RabbitMQ非常简单

lion@ubuntu1404:~$ sudo echo 'deb http://www.rabbitmq.com/debian/ testing main' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/rabbitmq.list
lion@ubuntu1404:~$ wget -O- https://www.rabbitmq.com/rabbitmq-release-signing-key.asc | sudo apt-key add -
lion@ubuntu1404:~$ sudo apt-get update
lion@ubuntu1404:~$ sudo apt-get install rabbitmq-server

  其他系统安装方法:http://www.rabbitmq.com/download.html

4.2、通过源码安装

  本文中的实例,主要通过源码安装来演示。

4.2.1、安装Erlang

  相关安装文档:http://erlang.org/erldoc

lion@node1:~$ sudo apt-get install -y erlang-nox erlang-dev erlang-src

  

4.2.2、Rabbitmq 3.6.3安装

  相关安装文档:http://www.rabbitmq.com/install-generic-unix.html

  我们先下载源码并解压

lion@node1:~$ mkdir -p _app
lion@node1:~/_app$ wget http://www.rabbitmq.com/releases/rabbitmq-server/v3.6.3/rabbitmq-server-generic-unix-3.6.3.tar.xz
lion@node1:~/_app$ xz -d rabbitmq-server-generic-unix-3.6.3.tar.xz
lion@node1:~/_app$ tar -xvf rabbitmq-server-generic-unix-3.6.3.tar
lion@node1:~/_app$ cd rabbitmq_server-3.6.3

  设置环境变量$RABBITMQ_HOME

lion@node1:~$ vi .bashrc

  在.bashrc中添加以下内容

export RABBITMQ_HOME="/home/lion/_app/rabbitmq_server-3.6.3"
export PATH="$RABBITMQ_HOME/sbin:$PATH"

  让环境变量生效

lion@node1:~$ source .bashrc

  启动Rabbitmq

lion@node1:~$ rabbitmq-server

  安装以后可以通过下面的命令,停止、启动:

lion@node1:~$ rabbitmqctl stop
lion@node1:~$ rabbitmqctl start

4.3、开启web管理插件

  创建一个用户lion,并设置密码123456:

lion@node1:~$ rabbitmqctl add_user lion 123456

  可以通过下面的命令,查看现有的用户更表

lion@node1:~$ rabbitmqctl list_users
Listing users ...
guest   [administrator]
lion    []

  这个时候lion用户是不能访问web管理插件的,需要配置用户角色,用户角色可分为五类,超级管理员, 监控者, 策略制定者, 普通管理者以及其他。

  • 超级管理员(administrator)

  可登陆管理控制台(启用management plugin的情况下),可查看所有的信息,并且可以对用户,策略(policy)进行操作。

  • 监控者(monitoring)

  可登陆管理控制台(启用management plugin的情况下),同时可以查看rabbitmq节点的相关信息(进程数,内存使用情况,磁盘使用情况等)

  • 策略制定者(policymaker)

  可登陆管理控制台(启用management plugin的情况下), 同时可以对policy进行管理。但无法查看节点的相关信息。

  • 普通管理者(management)

  仅可登陆管理控制台(启用management plugin的情况下),无法看到节点信息,也无法对策略进行管理。

  • 其他

  无法登陆管理控制台,通常就是普通的生产者和消费者。

  通过下面的命令,可以将lion添加到administrator用户组:

lion@node1:~$ rabbitmqctl set_user_tags lion administrator

  然后可以用下面的命令来启用/信上管理插件:

lion@node1:~$ rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management  (启用插件)
lion@node1:~$ rabbitmq-plugins disable rabbitmq_management (禁用插件)

  通过浏览访问 http://127.0.0.1:15672/
  输入用户名lion,密码123456就可以看到后台了。

rabbitmqctl的更多命令参考:http://www.rabbitmq.com/man/rabbitmqctl.1.man.html

4.4、RabbitMQ 的配置文件介绍

  RabbitMQ的配置文件目录默认是$RABBITMQ_HOME/etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-env.conf,如果文件不存在,可以自己创建。

  配置文件全部说明地址:http://www.rabbitmq.com/configure.html#configuration-file

%% -*- mode: erlang -*-
%% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
%% RabbitMQ Sample Configuration File.
%%
%% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/configure.html for details.
%% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[
 {rabbit,
  [%%
   %% Network Connectivity
   %% ====================
   %%

   %% By default, RabbitMQ will listen on all interfaces, using
   %% the standard (reserved) AMQP port.
   %% 默认的监听端口
   %% {tcp_listeners, [5672]},

   %% To listen on a specific interface, provide a tuple of {IpAddress, Port}.
   %% For example, to listen only on localhost for both IPv4 and IPv6:
   %% 也可以使用下面的格式进行指定IP和端口的监听
   %% {tcp_listeners, [{"127.0.0.1", 5672},
   %%                  {"::1",       5672}]},

   %% SSL listeners are configured in the same fashion as TCP listeners,
   %% including the option to control the choice of interface.
   %% SSL连接端口配置
   %% {ssl_listeners, [5671]},

   %% Number of Erlang processes that will accept connections for the TCP
   %% and SSL listeners.
   %% TCP连接的进程数
   %% {num_tcp_acceptors, 10},
   %% {num_ssl_acceptors, 1},

   %% Maximum time for AMQP 0-8/0-9/0-9-1 handshake (after socket connection
   %% and SSL handshake), in milliseconds.
   %% 超时时间,单位毫秒
   %% {handshake_timeout, 10000},

   %% Log levels (currently just used for connection logging).
   %% One of 'debug', 'info', 'warning', 'error' or 'none', in decreasing
   %% order of verbosity. Defaults to 'info'.
   %% 日志的级别,默认是info
   %% {log_levels, [{connection, info}, {channel, info}]},

   %% Set to 'true' to perform reverse DNS lookups when accepting a
   %% connection. Hostnames will then be shown instead of IP addresses
   %% in rabbitmqctl and the management plugin.
   %%
   %% {reverse_dns_lookups, true},

   %%
   %% Security / AAA
   %% ==============
   %% 安全配置

   %% The default "guest" user is only permitted to access the server
   %% via a loopback interface (e.g. localhost).
   %% {loopback_users, [<<"guest">>]},
   %% 
   %% Uncomment the following line if you want to allow access to the
   %% guest user from anywhere on the network.
   %% {loopback_users, []},

   %% Configuring SSL.
   %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/ssl.html for full documentation.
   %%
   %% {ssl_options, [{cacertfile,           "/path/to/testca/cacert.pem"},
   %%                {certfile,             "/path/to/server/cert.pem"},
   %%                {keyfile,              "/path/to/server/key.pem"},
   %%                {verify,               verify_peer},
   %%                {fail_if_no_peer_cert, false}]},

   %% Choose the available SASL mechanism(s) to expose.
   %% The two default (built in) mechanisms are 'PLAIN' and
   %% 'AMQPLAIN'. Additional mechanisms can be added via
   %% plugins.
   %%
   %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/authentication.html for more details.
   %%
   %% {auth_mechanisms, ['PLAIN', 'AMQPLAIN']},

   %% Select an authentication database to use. RabbitMQ comes bundled
   %% with a built-in auth-database, based on mnesia.
   %%
   %% {auth_backends, [rabbit_auth_backend_internal]},

   %% Configurations supporting the rabbitmq_auth_mechanism_ssl and
   %% rabbitmq_auth_backend_ldap plugins.
   %%
   %% NB: These options require that the relevant plugin is enabled.
   %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/plugins.html for further details.

   %% The RabbitMQ-auth-mechanism-ssl plugin makes it possible to
   %% authenticate a user based on the client's SSL certificate.
   %%
   %% To use auth-mechanism-ssl, add to or replace the auth_mechanisms
   %% list with the entry 'EXTERNAL'.
   %%
   %% {auth_mechanisms, ['EXTERNAL']},

   %% The rabbitmq_auth_backend_ldap plugin allows the broker to
   %% perform authentication and authorisation by deferring to an
   %% external LDAP server.
   %%
   %% For more information about configuring the LDAP backend, see
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/ldap.html.
   %%
   %% Enable the LDAP auth backend by adding to or replacing the
   %% auth_backends entry:
   %%
   %% {auth_backends, [rabbit_auth_backend_ldap]},

   %% This pertains to both the rabbitmq_auth_mechanism_ssl plugin and
   %% STOMP ssl_cert_login configurations. See the rabbitmq_stomp
   %% configuration section later in this file and the README in
   %% https://github.com/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-auth-mechanism-ssl for further
   %% details.
   %%
   %% To use the SSL cert's CN instead of its DN as the username
   %%
   %% {ssl_cert_login_from, common_name},

   %% SSL handshake timeout, in milliseconds.
   %%
   %% {ssl_handshake_timeout, 5000},

   %% Password hashing implementation. Will only affect newly
   %% created users. To recalculate hash for an existing user
   %% it's necessary to update her password.
   %%
   %% {password_hashing_module, rabbit_password_hashing_sha256},

   %%
   %% Default User / VHost
   %% ====================
   %% 用户访问设置

   %% On first start RabbitMQ will create a vhost and a user. These
   %% config items control what gets created. See
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/access-control.html for further
   %% information about vhosts and access control.
   %%
   %% {default_vhost,       <<"/">>},
   %% {default_user,        <<"guest">>},
   %% {default_pass,        <<"guest">>},
   %% {default_permissions, [<<".*">>, <<".*">>, <<".*">>]},

   %% Tags for default user
   %%
   %% For more details about tags, see the documentation for the
   %% Management Plugin at http://www.rabbitmq.com/management.html.
   %%
   %% {default_user_tags, [administrator]},

   %%
   %% Additional network and protocol related configuration
   %% =====================================================
   %%

   %% Set the default AMQP heartbeat delay (in seconds).
   %% 设置默认AMQP心跳延迟(秒)
   %% {heartbeat, 600},

   %% Set the max permissible size of an AMQP frame (in bytes).
   %%
   %% {frame_max, 131072},

   %% Set the max frame size the server will accept before connection
   %% tuning occurs
   %%
   %% {initial_frame_max, 4096},

   %% Set the max permissible number of channels per connection.
   %% 0 means "no limit".
   %%
   %% {channel_max, 128},

   %% Customising Socket Options.
   %%
   %% See (http://www.erlang.org/doc/man/inet.html#setopts-2) for
   %% further documentation.
   %%
   %% {tcp_listen_options, [{backlog,       128},
   %%                       {nodelay,       true},
   %%                       {exit_on_close, false}]},

   %%
   %% Resource Limits & Flow Control
   %% ==============================
   %%
   %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/memory.html for full details.

   %% Memory-based Flow Control threshold.
   %%
   %% {vm_memory_high_watermark, 0.4},

   %% Alternatively, we can set a limit (in bytes) of RAM used by the node.
   %%
   %% {vm_memory_high_watermark, {absolute, 1073741824}},
   %%
   %% Or you can set absolute value using memory units.
   %%
   %% {vm_memory_high_watermark, {absolute, "1024M"}},
   %%
   %% Supported units suffixes:
   %%
   %% k, kiB: kibibytes (2^10 bytes)
   %% M, MiB: mebibytes (2^20)
   %% G, GiB: gibibytes (2^30)
   %% kB: kilobytes (10^3)
   %% MB: megabytes (10^6)
   %% GB: gigabytes (10^9)

   %% Fraction of the high watermark limit at which queues start to
   %% page message out to disc in order to free up memory.
   %%
   %% Values greater than 0.9 can be dangerous and should be used carefully.
   %% 内存最大使用比例
   %% {vm_memory_high_watermark_paging_ratio, 0.5},

   %% Interval (in milliseconds) at which we perform the check of the memory
   %% levels against the watermarks.
   %% 检查内存的间隔(毫秒)
   %% {memory_monitor_interval, 2500},

   %% Set disk free limit (in bytes). Once free disk space reaches this
   %% lower bound, a disk alarm will be set - see the documentation
   %% listed above for more details.
   %%
   %% {disk_free_limit, 50000000},
   %%
   %% Or you can set it using memory units (same as in vm_memory_high_watermark)
   %% {disk_free_limit, "50MB"},
   %% {disk_free_limit, "50000kB"},
   %% {disk_free_limit, "2GB"},

   %% Alternatively, we can set a limit relative to total available RAM.
   %%
   %% Values lower than 1.0 can be dangerous and should be used carefully.
   %% {disk_free_limit, {mem_relative, 2.0}},

   %%
   %% Misc/Advanced Options
   %% =====================
   %%
   %% NB: Change these only if you understand what you are doing!
   %%

   %% To announce custom properties to clients on connection:
   %%
   %% {server_properties, []},

   %% How to respond to cluster partitions.
   %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/partitions.html for further details.
   %%
   %% {cluster_partition_handling, ignore},

   %% Make clustering happen *automatically* at startup - only applied
   %% to nodes that have just been reset or started for the first time.
   %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/clustering.html#auto-config for
   %% further details.
   %% 设置集群启动的节点
   %% {cluster_nodes, {['rabbit@my.host.com'], disc}},

   %% Interval (in milliseconds) at which we send keepalive messages
   %% to other cluster members. Note that this is not the same thing
   %% as net_ticktime; missed keepalive messages will not cause nodes
   %% to be considered down.
   %% 集群消息同步的时间(毫秒)
   %% {cluster_keepalive_interval, 10000},

   %% Set (internal) statistics collection granularity.
   %%
   %% {collect_statistics, none},

   %% Statistics collection interval (in milliseconds).
   %%
   %% {collect_statistics_interval, 5000},

   %% Explicitly enable/disable hipe compilation.
   %%
   %% {hipe_compile, true},

   %% Timeout used when waiting for Mnesia tables in a cluster to
   %% become available.
   %%
   %% {mnesia_table_loading_timeout, 30000},

   %% Size in bytes below which to embed messages in the queue index. See
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/persistence-conf.html
   %%
   %% {queue_index_embed_msgs_below, 4096}

  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% Advanced Erlang Networking/Clustering Options.
 %%
 %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/clustering.html for details
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 {kernel,
  [%% Sets the net_kernel tick time.
   %% Please see http://erlang.org/doc/man/kernel_app.html and
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/nettick.html for further details.
   %%
   %% {net_ticktime, 60}
  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% RabbitMQ Management Plugin
 %%
 %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/management.html for details
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 {rabbitmq_management,
  [%% Pre-Load schema definitions from the following JSON file. See
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/management.html#load-definitions
   %%
   %% {load_definitions, "/path/to/schema.json"},

   %% Log all requests to the management HTTP API to a file.
   %% 所有请求的HTTP API文件日志的路径。
   %% {http_log_dir, "/path/to/access.log"},

   %% Change the port on which the HTTP listener listens,
   %% specifying an interface for the web server to bind to.
   %% Also set the listener to use SSL and provide SSL options.
   %% Web管理的地址和端口
   %% {listener, [{port,     12345},
   %%             {ip,       "127.0.0.1"},
   %%             {ssl,      true},
   %%             {ssl_opts, [{cacertfile, "/path/to/cacert.pem"},
   %%                         {certfile,   "/path/to/cert.pem"},
   %%                         {keyfile,    "/path/to/key.pem"}]}]},

   %% One of 'basic', 'detailed' or 'none'. See
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/management.html#fine-stats for more details.
   %% {rates_mode, basic},

   %% Configure how long aggregated data (such as message rates and queue
   %% lengths) is retained. Please read the plugin's documentation in
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/management.html#configuration for more
   %% details.
   %%
   %% {sample_retention_policies,
   %%  [{global,   [{60, 5}, {3600, 60}, {86400, 1200}]},
   %%   {basic,    [{60, 5}, {3600, 60}]},
   %%   {detailed, [{10, 5}]}]}
  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% RabbitMQ Shovel Plugin
 %%
 %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/shovel.html for details
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 {rabbitmq_shovel,
  [{shovels,
    [%% A named shovel worker.
     %% {my_first_shovel,
     %%  [

     %% List the source broker(s) from which to consume.
     %%
     %%   {sources,
     %%    [%% URI(s) and pre-declarations for all source broker(s).
     %%     {brokers, ["amqp://user:password@host.domain/my_vhost"]},
     %%     {declarations, []}
     %%    ]},

     %% List the destination broker(s) to publish to.
     %%   {destinations,
     %%    [%% A singular version of the 'brokers' element.
     %%     {broker, "amqp://"},
     %%     {declarations, []}
     %%    ]},

     %% Name of the queue to shovel messages from.
     %%
     %% {queue, <<"your-queue-name-goes-here">>},

     %% Optional prefetch count.
     %%
     %% {prefetch_count, 10},

     %% when to acknowledge messages:
     %% - no_ack: never (auto)
     %% - on_publish: after each message is republished
     %% - on_confirm: when the destination broker confirms receipt
     %%
     %% {ack_mode, on_confirm},

     %% Overwrite fields of the outbound basic.publish.
     %%
     %% {publish_fields, [{exchange,    <<"my_exchange">>},
     %%                   {routing_key, <<"from_shovel">>}]},

     %% Static list of basic.properties to set on re-publication.
     %%
     %% {publish_properties, [{delivery_mode, 2}]},

     %% The number of seconds to wait before attempting to
     %% reconnect in the event of a connection failure.
     %%
     %% {reconnect_delay, 2.5}

     %% ]} %% End of my_first_shovel
    ]}
   %% Rather than specifying some values per-shovel, you can specify
   %% them for all shovels here.
   %%
   %% {defaults, [{prefetch_count,     0},
   %%             {ack_mode,           on_confirm},
   %%             {publish_fields,     []},
   %%             {publish_properties, [{delivery_mode, 2}]},
   %%             {reconnect_delay,    2.5}]}
  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% RabbitMQ Stomp Adapter
 %%
 %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/stomp.html for details
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 {rabbitmq_stomp,
  [%% Network Configuration - the format is generally the same as for the broker

   %% Listen only on localhost (ipv4 & ipv6) on a specific port.
   %% {tcp_listeners, [{"127.0.0.1", 61613},
   %%                  {"::1",       61613}]},

   %% Listen for SSL connections on a specific port.
   %% {ssl_listeners, [61614]},

   %% Number of Erlang processes that will accept connections for the TCP
   %% and SSL listeners.
   %%
   %% {num_tcp_acceptors, 10},
   %% {num_ssl_acceptors, 1},

   %% Additional SSL options

   %% Extract a name from the client's certificate when using SSL.
   %%
   %% {ssl_cert_login, true},

   %% Set a default user name and password. This is used as the default login
   %% whenever a CONNECT frame omits the login and passcode headers.
   %%
   %% Please note that setting this will allow clients to connect without
   %% authenticating!
   %%
   %% {default_user, [{login,    "guest"},
   %%                 {passcode, "guest"}]},

   %% If a default user is configured, or you have configured use SSL client
   %% certificate based authentication, you can choose to allow clients to
   %% omit the CONNECT frame entirely. If set to true, the client is
   %% automatically connected as the default user or user supplied in the
   %% SSL certificate whenever the first frame sent on a session is not a
   %% CONNECT frame.
   %%
   %% {implicit_connect, true}
  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% RabbitMQ MQTT Adapter
 %%
 %% See https://github.com/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-mqtt/blob/stable/README.md
 %% for details
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 {rabbitmq_mqtt,
  [%% Set the default user name and password. Will be used as the default login
   %% if a connecting client provides no other login details.
   %%
   %% Please note that setting this will allow clients to connect without
   %% authenticating!
   %%
   %% {default_user, <<"guest">>},
   %% {default_pass, <<"guest">>},

   %% Enable anonymous access. If this is set to false, clients MUST provide
   %% login information in order to connect. See the default_user/default_pass
   %% configuration elements for managing logins without authentication.
   %%
   %% {allow_anonymous, true},

   %% If you have multiple chosts, specify the one to which the
   %% adapter connects.
   %%
   %% {vhost, <<"/">>},

   %% Specify the exchange to which messages from MQTT clients are published.
   %%
   %% {exchange, <<"amq.topic">>},

   %% Specify TTL (time to live) to control the lifetime of non-clean sessions.
   %%
   %% {subscription_ttl, 1800000},

   %% Set the prefetch count (governing the maximum number of unacknowledged
   %% messages that will be delivered).
   %%
   %% {prefetch, 10},

   %% TCP/SSL Configuration (as per the broker configuration).
   %%
   %% {tcp_listeners, [1883]},
   %% {ssl_listeners, []},

   %% Number of Erlang processes that will accept connections for the TCP
   %% and SSL listeners.
   %%
   %% {num_tcp_acceptors, 10},
   %% {num_ssl_acceptors, 1},

   %% TCP/Socket options (as per the broker configuration).
   %%
   %% {tcp_listen_options, [{backlog,   128},
   %%                       {nodelay,   true}]}
  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% RabbitMQ AMQP 1.0 Support
 %%
 %% See https://github.com/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-amqp1.0/blob/stable/README.md
 %% for details
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 {rabbitmq_amqp1_0,
  [%% Connections that are not authenticated with SASL will connect as this
   %% account. See the README for more information.
   %%
   %% Please note that setting this will allow clients to connect without
   %% authenticating!
   %%
   %% {default_user, "guest"},

   %% Enable protocol strict mode. See the README for more information.
   %%
   %% {protocol_strict_mode, false}
  ]},

 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 %% RabbitMQ LDAP Plugin
 %%
 %% See http://www.rabbitmq.com/ldap.html for details.
 %%
 %% ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

 {rabbitmq_auth_backend_ldap,
  [%%
   %% Connecting to the LDAP server(s)
   %% ================================
   %%

   %% Specify servers to bind to. You *must* set this in order for the plugin
   %% to work properly.
   %%
   %% {servers, ["your-server-name-goes-here"]},

   %% Connect to the LDAP server using SSL
   %%
   %% {use_ssl, false},

   %% Specify the LDAP port to connect to
   %%
   %% {port, 389},

   %% LDAP connection timeout, in milliseconds or 'infinity'
   %%
   %% {timeout, infinity},

   %% Enable logging of LDAP queries.
   %% One of
   %%   - false (no logging is performed)
   %%   - true (verbose logging of the logic used by the plugin)
   %%   - network (as true, but additionally logs LDAP network traffic)
   %%
   %% Defaults to false.
   %%
   %% {log, false},

   %%
   %% Authentication
   %% ==============
   %%

   %% Pattern to convert the username given through AMQP to a DN before
   %% binding
   %%
   %% {user_dn_pattern, "cn=${username},ou=People,dc=example,dc=com"},

   %% Alternatively, you can convert a username to a Distinguished
   %% Name via an LDAP lookup after binding. See the documentation for
   %% full details.

   %% When converting a username to a dn via a lookup, set these to
   %% the name of the attribute that represents the user name, and the
   %% base DN for the lookup query.
   %%
   %% {dn_lookup_attribute,   "userPrincipalName"},
   %% {dn_lookup_base,        "DC=gopivotal,DC=com"},

   %% Controls how to bind for authorisation queries and also to
   %% retrieve the details of users logging in without presenting a
   %% password (e.g., SASL EXTERNAL).
   %% One of
   %%  - as_user (to bind as the authenticated user - requires a password)
   %%  - anon    (to bind anonymously)
   %%  - {UserDN, Password} (to bind with a specified user name and password)
   %%
   %% Defaults to 'as_user'.
   %%
   %% {other_bind, as_user},

   %%
   %% Authorisation
   %% =============
   %%

   %% The LDAP plugin can perform a variety of queries against your
   %% LDAP server to determine questions of authorisation. See
   %% http://www.rabbitmq.com/ldap.html#authorisation for more
   %% information.

   %% Set the query to use when determining vhost access
   %%
   %% {vhost_access_query, {in_group,
   %%                       "ou=${vhost}-users,ou=vhosts,dc=example,dc=com"}},

   %% Set the query to use when determining resource (e.g., queue) access
   %%
   %% {resource_access_query, {constant, true}},

   %% Set queries to determine which tags a user has
   %%
   %% {tag_queries, []}
  ]}
].

5、Golang调用RabbitMQ的案例

  下载Golgang运行amqp协议的包,在Rabbitmq官网上有提供现在的golang包来使用amqp协议与Rabbitmq交互 。

  我们先将包下载到本地,然后就可以直接使用了:

lion@node1:~$ go get github.com/streadway/amqp

5.1、使用Golang来发送第一个hello idoall.org

  在第一个教程中,我们写程序从一个命名的队列(test-idoall-queues)中发送和接收消息。

  producer_hello.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName    = "test-idoall-queues"
  //Body of message
  bodyMsg string   = "hello idoall.org"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, queueName, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
    defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
    queueName, // name
    false,   // durable
    false,   // delete when unused
    false,   // exclusive
    false,   // no-wait
    nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)

  // Producer只能发送到exchange,它是不能直接发送到queue的。
  // 现在我们使用默认的exchange(名字是空字符)。这个默认的exchange允许我们发送给指定的queue。
  // routing_key就是指定的queue名字。
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    q.Name, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_hello(消息消费者).go

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange nam
  exchangeName  = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = "test-idoall-queues"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}



func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, queueName)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      false,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      false,   // exclusive
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      true,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf("Received a message: %s", d.Body)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  Console1(运行producer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_hello.go
2016/07/23 02:29:51 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 02:29:51 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 02:29:51 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues"
2016/07/23 02:29:51 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("hello idoall.org")
2016/07/23 02:29:51 published 16B OK

  然后运行以下命令,可以看到我们刚才创建的queues在列表中

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_queues
Listing queues ...
test-idoall-queues  1

  Console2(运行consumer)打印消息到屏幕,可以看到刚才我们通过producer发送的消息hello idoall.org

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_hello.go
2016/07/23 03:33:14 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 03:33:14 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 03:33:14 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues"
2016/07/23 03:33:14 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 03:33:14  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
2016/07/23 03:33:14 Received a message: hello idoall.org

5.2、Rabbitmq的任务分发机制

  在5.1章节中,我们写程序从一个命名的队列中发送和接收消息。在这个章节中,我们将创建一个工作队列,将用于分配在多个工人之间的耗时的任务。

  RabbitMQ的分发机制非常适合扩展,而且它是专门为并发程序设计的。如果任务队伍过多,那么只需要创建更多的Consumer来进行任务处理即可。

  producer_task.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName    = "test-idoall-queues-task"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, queueName, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
    queueName, // name
    false,   // durable
    false,   // delete when unused
    false,   // exclusive
    false,   // no-wait
    nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)

  // Producer只能发送到exchange,它是不能直接发送到queue的。
  // 现在我们使用默认的exchange(名字是空字符)。这个默认的exchange允许我们发送给指定的queue。
  // routing_key就是指定的queue名字。
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    q.Name, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_task(消息消费者).go

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "bytes"
  "time"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange nam
  exchangeName  = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = "test-idoall-queues-task"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}



func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, queueName)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      false,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      false,   // exclusive
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf("Received a message: %s", d.Body)
        dot_count := bytes.Count(d.Body, []byte("."))
        t := time.Duration(dot_count)
        time.Sleep(t * time.Second)
        log.Printf("Done")
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

查看结果


  Console1(consumer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_task.go
2016/07/23 10:11:40 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:11:40 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:11:40 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:11:40 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 10:11:40  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  Console2(consumer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_task.go
2016/07/23 10:11:40 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:11:40 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:11:40 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:11:40 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 10:11:40  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  这个时候我们使用Producer 来 Publish Message:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_task.go First message. && go run producer_task.go Second message.. && go run producer_task.go Third message... && go run producer_task.go Fourth message.... && go run producer_task.go Fifth message.....
2016/07/23 10:17:13 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:17:13 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:17:13 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:17:13 declared queue, publishing 14B body ("First message.")
2016/07/23 10:17:13 published 14B OK
2016/07/23 10:17:14 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:17:14 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:17:14 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:17:14 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Second message..")
2016/07/23 10:17:14 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 10:17:15 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:17:15 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:17:15 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:17:15 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Third message...")
2016/07/23 10:17:15 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 10:17:16 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:17:16 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:17:16 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:17:16 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fourth message....")
2016/07/23 10:17:16 published 18B OK
2016/07/23 10:17:16 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:17:16 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:17:16 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:17:16 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fifth message.....")
2016/07/23 10:17:16 published 18B OK

  这时我们再看刚才打开的两个Consumer的结果:
  Console1(consumer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_task.go
2016/07/23 10:11:21 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:11:21 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:11:21 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:11:21 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 10:11:21  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
2016/07/23 10:17:13 Received a message: First message.
2016/07/23 10:17:14 Done
2016/07/23 10:17:15 Received a message: Third message...
2016/07/23 10:17:18 Done
2016/07/23 10:17:18 Received a message: Fifth message.....
2016/07/23 10:17:23 Done

  Console2(consumer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_task.go
2016/07/23 10:11:40 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 10:11:40 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 10:11:40 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-task"
2016/07/23 10:11:40 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 10:11:40  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
2016/07/23 10:17:14 Received a message: Second message..
2016/07/23 10:17:16 Done
2016/07/23 10:17:16 Received a message: Fourth message....
2016/07/23 10:17:20 Done

  默认情况下,RabbitMQ 会顺序的分发每个Message。当每个收到ack后,会将该Message删除,然后将下一个Message分发到下一个Consumer。这种分发方式叫做round-robin,也叫消息轮询

5.3、Message acknowledgment 消息确认

  每个Consumer可能需要一段时间才能处理完收到的数据。如果在这个过程中,Consumer出错了,异常退出了,而数据还没有处理完成,那么非常不幸,这段数据就丢失了。因为我们的代码,一旦RabbitMQ Server发送给Consumer消息后,会立即把这个Message标记为完成,然后从queue中删除。我们将无法再操作这个尚未处理完成的消息。

  实际场景中,如果一个Consumer异常退出了,我们希望它处理的数据能够被另外的Consumer处理,这样数据在这种情况下(通道关闭、连接关闭、TCP连接丢失等情况)就不会丢失了。

  为了保证数据不被丢失,RabbitMQ支持消息确认机制,ack(nowledgments)是从Consumer消费后发送到一个特定的消息告诉RabbitMQ已经收到、处理结束,RabbitMQ可以去安全的删除它了。

  如果Consumer退出了但是没有发送ack,那么RabbitMQ就会把这个Message重新排进队列,发送到下一个Consumer。这样就保证了在Consumer异常退出的情况下数据也不会丢失。

  这里并没有用到超时机制。RabbitMQ仅仅通过Consumer的连接中断来确认该Message并没有被正确处理。也就是说,RabbitMQ给了Consumer足够长的时间来做数据处理。

  消息确认默认是关闭的,我们需要通过,d.ACK(false)来告诉RabbitMQ我们已经完成任务。

  producer_acknowledgments(消息生产者).go:

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName    = "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, queueName, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
    queueName, // name
    false,   // durable
    false,   // delete when unused
    false,   // exclusive
    false,   // no-wait
    nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)

  // Producer只能发送到exchange,它是不能直接发送到queue的。
  // 现在我们使用默认的exchange(名字是空字符)。这个默认的exchange允许我们发送给指定的queue。
  // routing_key就是指定的queue名字。
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    q.Name, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_acknowledgments(消息消费者).go

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "bytes"
  "time"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange nam
  exchangeName  = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, queueName)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      false,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      false,   // exclusive
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf("Received a message: %s", d.Body)
        dot_count := bytes.Count(d.Body, []byte("."))
        t := time.Duration(dot_count)
        time.Sleep(t * time.Second)
        log.Printf("Done")
        d.Ack(false)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  查看结果


  我们先使用Producer来发送一列消息:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_acknowledgments.go First message. && go run producer_acknowledgments.go Second message.. && go run producer_acknowledgments.go Third message... && go run producer_acknowledgments.go Fourth message.... && go run producer_acknowledgments.go Fifth message.....
2016/07/23 21:41:40 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 21:41:40 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 21:41:40 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
2016/07/23 21:41:40 declared queue, publishing 14B body ("First message.")
2016/07/23 21:41:40 published 14B OK
2016/07/23 21:41:41 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 21:41:41 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 21:41:41 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
2016/07/23 21:41:41 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Second message..")
2016/07/23 21:41:41 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 21:41:41 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 21:41:41 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 21:41:41 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
2016/07/23 21:41:41 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Third message...")
2016/07/23 21:41:41 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 21:41:42 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 21:41:42 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 21:41:42 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
2016/07/23 21:41:42 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fourth message....")
2016/07/23 21:41:42 published 18B OK
2016/07/23 21:41:43 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 21:41:43 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 21:41:43 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
2016/07/23 21:41:43 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fifth message.....")
2016/07/23 21:41:43 published 18B OK

  通过rabbitmqctl命令,来看下messages_unacknowledged的情况:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_queues name messages_ready messages_unacknowledged
Listing queues ...
test-idoall-queues-task 0 0
test-idoall-queues  0 0
test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments  5 0

  使用Consumer来订阅消息操作到第三条的时候,我们按CTRL+C退出,这个时候相当于消息已经被读取,但是未发送d.ACK(false):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_acknowledgments.go
2016/07/23 21:56:35 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 21:56:35 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 21:56:35 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments"
2016/07/23 21:56:35 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 21:56:35  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
2016/07/23 21:56:35 Received a message: First message.
2016/07/23 21:56:36 Done
2016/07/23 21:56:36 Received a message: Second message..
2016/07/23 21:56:38 Done
2016/07/23 21:56:38 Received a message: Third message...
^Csignal: interrupt

  再通过rabbitmqctl命令可以看到,还是有3条消息未处理

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_queues name messages_ready messages_unacknowledged
Listing queues ...
test-idoall-queues-task 0 0
test-idoall-queues  0 0
test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments  3 0

5.4、Message durability消息持久化

  如果服务器死机或程序 crash了,数据仍然会丢失。为了确保消息不会丢失,我们需要将queue和Message做持久化操作。

  将durable设置为true可以做持久化处理(生产者和消息者的代码里都要设置),如果是已经存在的一个queue 没有设置过持久化,再重新设置是不起作用的,我们需要重新为queue设置一个名字。

  最后在Producer发布消息的时候,我们需要设置DeliveryMode为amqp.Persistent,持久化的工作就做完了,下面我们来看代码

  producer_durability.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)


const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName    = "test-idoall-queues-durability"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, queueName, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
    queueName, // name
    true,   // durable
    false,   // delete when unused
    false,   // exclusive
    false,   // no-wait
    nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)

  // Producer只能发送到exchange,它是不能直接发送到queue的。
  // 现在我们使用默认的exchange(名字是空字符)。这个默认的exchange允许我们发送给指定的queue。
  // routing_key就是指定的queue名字。
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    q.Name, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      DeliveryMode: amqp.Persistent,
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_durability.go(消息接收者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "bytes"
  "time"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange nam
  exchangeName  = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = "test-idoall-queues-durability"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, queueName)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      true,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      false,   // exclusive
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf("Received a message: %s", d.Body)
        dot_count := bytes.Count(d.Body, []byte("."))
        t := time.Duration(dot_count)
        time.Sleep(t * time.Second)
        log.Printf("Done")
        d.Ack(false)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  查看结果


  我们先使用Producer来发送一列消息:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_durability.go First message. && go run producer_durability.go Second message.. && go run producer_durability.go Third message... && go run producer_durability.go Fourth message.... && go run producer_durability.go Fifth message.....
2016/07/23 22:35:03 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 22:35:03 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 22:35:03 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-durability"
2016/07/23 22:35:04 declared queue, publishing 14B body ("First message.")
2016/07/23 22:35:04 published 14B OK
2016/07/23 22:35:04 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 22:35:04 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 22:35:04 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-durability"
2016/07/23 22:35:04 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Second message..")
2016/07/23 22:35:04 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 22:35:05 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 22:35:05 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 22:35:05 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-durability"
2016/07/23 22:35:05 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Third message...")
2016/07/23 22:35:05 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 22:35:06 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 22:35:06 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 22:35:06 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-durability"
2016/07/23 22:35:06 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fourth message....")
2016/07/23 22:35:06 published 18B OK
2016/07/23 22:35:06 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 22:35:06 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 22:35:06 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-durability"
2016/07/23 22:35:06 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fifth message.....")
2016/07/23 22:35:06 published 18B OK

  通过rabbitmqctl list_queues命令,来看下messages_unacknowledged的情况:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_queues
Listing queues ...
test-idoall-queues-task 0
test-idoall-queues  0
test-idoall-queues-durability 5
test-idoall-queues-acknowledgments  0

  重启RabbitMQ-Server

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl stop
lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmq-server

              RabbitMQ 3.6.3. Copyright (C) 2007-2016 Pivotal Software, Inc.
  ##  ##      Licensed under the MPL.  See http://www.rabbitmq.com/
  ##  ##
  ##########  Logs: /home/lion/_app/rabbitmq_server-3.6.3/var/log/rabbitmq/rabbit@node1.log
  ######  ##        /home/lion/_app/rabbitmq_server-3.6.3/var/log/rabbitmq/rabbit@node1-sasl.log
  ##########
              Starting broker...
 completed with 6 plugins.

  再次通过rabbitmqctl list_queues命令查看,可以看到消息是存在的,说明我们的持久化是成功的

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_queues
Listing queues ...
test-idoall-queues-durability 5

5.5、Fair dispatch 公平分发

  上面的,分发机制不是那么优雅。默认状态下,RabbitMQ将第n个Message分发给第n个Consumer。当然n是取余后的。它不管Consumer是否还有unacked Message,只是按照这个默认机制进行分发。

  那么如果有个Consumer工作比较重,那么就会导致有的Consumer基本没事可做,有的Consumer却是毫无休息的机会。

  通过 ch.Qos 方法设置预读取消息prefetch count=1 。这样RabbitMQ就会使得每个Consumer在同一个时间点最多处理一个Message。换句话说,在接收到该Consumer的ack前,他它不会将新的Message分发给它。

  producer_fair_dispatch.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName    = "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, queueName, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
    queueName, // name
    true,   // durable
    false,   // delete when unused
    false,   // exclusive
    false,   // no-wait
    nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)

  // Producer只能发送到exchange,它是不能直接发送到queue的。
  // 现在我们使用默认的exchange(名字是空字符)。这个默认的exchange允许我们发送给指定的queue。
  // routing_key就是指定的queue名字。
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    q.Name, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      DeliveryMode: amqp.Persistent,
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_fair_dispatch.go(消息消费者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "bytes"
  "time"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange nam
  exchangeName  = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, queueName)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      true,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      false,   // exclusive
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  //每次只取一条消息
  err = channel.Qos(
          1,     // prefetch count
          0,     // prefetch size
          false, // global
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to set QoS")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf("Received a message: %s", d.Body)
        dot_count := bytes.Count(d.Body, []byte("."))
        t := time.Duration(dot_count)
        time.Sleep(t * time.Second)
        log.Printf("Done")
        d.Ack(false)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  查看结果


  我们先使用Producer来发送一列消息:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_fair_dispatch.go First message. && go run producer_fair_dispatch.go Second message.. && go run producer_fair_dispatch.go Third message... && go run producer_fair_dispatch.go Fourth message.... && go run producer_fair_dispatch.go Fifth message.....
2016/07/23 23:09:24 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:09:24 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:09:24 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:09:24 declared queue, publishing 14B body ("First message.")
2016/07/23 23:09:24 published 14B OK
2016/07/23 23:09:24 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:09:24 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:09:24 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:09:24 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Second message..")
2016/07/23 23:09:24 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 23:09:25 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:09:25 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:09:25 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:09:25 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("Third message...")
2016/07/23 23:09:25 published 16B OK
2016/07/23 23:09:26 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:09:26 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:09:26 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:09:26 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fourth message....")
2016/07/23 23:09:26 published 18B OK
2016/07/23 23:09:27 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:09:27 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:09:27 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:09:27 declared queue, publishing 18B body ("Fifth message.....")
2016/07/23 23:09:27 published 18B OK

  再依次在两个Console中依次执行下面的命令,可以看到消息被正常的分发了

  Console1(consumer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_fair_dispatch.go
2016/07/23 23:10:47 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:10:47 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:10:47 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:10:47 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 23:10:47  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
2016/07/23 23:10:47 Received a message: First message.
2016/07/23 23:10:48 Done
2016/07/23 23:10:48 Received a message: Second message..
2016/07/23 23:10:50 Done
2016/07/23 23:10:50 Received a message: Fourth message....
2016/07/23 23:10:54 Done

  Console2(consumer):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_fair_dispatch.go
2016/07/23 23:10:49 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/23 23:10:49 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/23 23:10:49 got queue, declaring "test-idoall-queues-fair_dispatch"
2016/07/23 23:10:49 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/23 23:10:49  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
2016/07/23 23:10:49 Received a message: Third message...
2016/07/23 23:10:52 Done
2016/07/23 23:10:52 Received a message: Fifth message.....
2016/07/23 23:10:57 Done

​ 基于AMQP的更多通道和消息属性,可以浏览AMQP API参考

5.6、Exchanges & Bindings

  RabbitMQ 的Messaging Model就是Producer并不会直接发送Message到queue。实际上,Producer并不知道它发送的Message是否已经到达queue。

  Producer发送的Message实际上是发到了Exchange中。它的功能也很简单:从Producer接收Message,然后投递到queue中。Exchange需要知道如何处理Message,是把它放到一个queue中,还是放到多个queue中?这个rule是通过Exchange 的类型定义的。

  我们知道有三种类型的Exchange:direct,,topic,headers 和fanout。fanout就是广播模式,会将所有的Message都放到它所知道的queue中。

  现在我们已经创建了fanout类型的exchange和没有名字的queue(实际上是RabbitMQ帮我们取了名字)。那exchange怎么样知道它的Message发送到哪个queue呢?答案就是通过bindings

  mshk.top

  通过rabbitmqctl可以列出当前所有的Exchange:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_exchanges
Listing exchanges ...
amq.direct  direct
amq.fanout  fanout
amq.match headers
amq.headers headers
  direct
amq.rabbitmq.trace  topic
amq.topic topic
amq.rabbitmq.log  topic

注意:amq.* 是RabbitMQ默认创建的。

​ 我们假设做一个日志系统,其中一个运行的接收程序Consumer发到消息后写入到磁盘中,同时, 另一个Consumer将收到的日志输出到屏幕上。

  producer_exchange_logs.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)


const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  "test-idoall-exchange-logs"
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  exchangeType = "fanout"
  //AMQP routing key
  routingKey   = ""
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, exchangeType, routingKey, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}


func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@exchangeType, exchangeType的类型direct|fanout|topic
//@routingKey, routingKey的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, exchangeType string, routingKey string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()


  //创建一个queue
  log.Printf("got Channel, declaring %q Exchange (%q)", exchangeType, exchange)
  err = channel.ExchangeDeclare(
    exchange,     // name
    exchangeType, // type
    true,         // durable
    false,        // auto-deleted
    false,        // internal
    false,        // noWait
    nil,          // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  // 发布消息
  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    routingKey, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_exchange_logs.go(消息消费者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  "test-idoall-exchange-logs"
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  exchangeType = "fanout"
  //AMQP binding key
  bindingKey   = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = ""
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, exchangeType, queueName, bindingKey)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@exchangeType, exchangeType的类型direct|fanout|topic
//@queue, queue的名称
//@key , 绑定的key名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, exchangeType string, queue string, key string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  //创建一个exchange
  log.Printf("got Channel, declaring Exchange (%q)", exchange)
  err = channel.ExchangeDeclare(
    exchange,     // name of the exchange
    exchangeType, // type
    true,         // durable
    false,        // delete when complete
    false,        // internal
    false,        // noWait
    nil,          // arguments
  );
  failOnError(err, "Exchange Declare:")

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      false,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      true,   // exclusive 当Consumer关闭连接时,这个queue要被deleted 
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  //绑定到exchange
  err = channel.QueueBind(
    q.Name, // name of the queue
    key,        // bindingKey
    exchange,   // sourceExchange
    false,      // noWait
    nil,        // arguments
  );
  failOnError(err, "Failed to bind a queue")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf(" [x] %s", d.Body)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  在AMQP客户端 ,当routing key为空的时候, 自动创建一个随机的queue,同时设置exclusive为true时,当这个Consumer关闭链接 时,会删除这个queue。

  当使用fanout类型的exchange和没有名字的queue,Cusomer并不知道消息发送到了哪个queue,这个时候我们就需要用到QueueBind方法,来绑定到exchange。

过程中可以使用rabbitmqctl list_bindings命令来查看绑定的列表

  查看结果


  Console1(Consumer),输出到文件:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_logs.go &> consumer_exchange_logs.log

  Console2(Consumer),打印到控制台:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_logs.go

  使用Producer来发送消息:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_exchange_logs.go
2016/07/24 02:21:49 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 02:21:49 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 02:21:49 got Channel, declaring "fanout" Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-logs")
2016/07/24 02:21:49 declared queue, publishing 16B body ("hello idoall.org")
2016/07/24 02:21:49 published 16B OK

  这时可以使用rabbitmqctl list_bindings来查看我们的绑定信息,可以看到queueu的名字是随机的

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ rabbitmqctl list_bindings
Listing bindings ...
  exchange  amq.gen-D2AnzGsLUMhJCPk7YxgUUw  queue amq.gen-D2AnzGsLUMhJCPk7YxgUUw  []
  exchange  amq.gen-GC4VDS3mxsAOTEqii_WsWw  queue amq.gen-GC4VDS3mxsAOTEqii_WsWw  []
test-idoall-exchange-logs exchange  amq.gen-D2AnzGsLUMhJCPk7YxgUUw  queue   []
test-idoall-exchange-logs exchange  amq.gen-GC4VDS3mxsAOTEqii_WsWw  queue   []

  使用cat命令,查看consumer_exchange_logs.log文件,可以看到内容被输入到文件中

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ cat consumer_exchange_logs.log
2016/07/24 02:25:17 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 02:25:17 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 02:25:17 got Channel, declaring Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-logs")
2016/07/24 02:25:17 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 02:25:17  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C
signal: interrupt

5.7、Direct exchange

  RabbitMQ支持同一个binding key绑定到多个queue中。Direct exchange的算法就是通过binding key来做匹配的。

对于fanout的exchange来说,routing_key这个参数是被忽略的。

mshk.top

  producer_exchange_direct_logs.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)


const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  "test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs"
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  exchangeType = "direct"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, exchangeType, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}


func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 3) || os.Args[2] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[2:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

func severityFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "info"
        } else {
                s = os.Args[1]
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@exchangeType, exchangeType的类型direct|fanout|topic
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, exchangeType string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()


  //创建一个queue
  log.Printf("got Channel, declaring %q Exchange (%q)", exchangeType, exchange)
  err = channel.ExchangeDeclare(
    exchange,     // name
    exchangeType, // type
    true,         // durable
    false,        // auto-deleted
    false,        // internal
    false,        // noWait
    nil,          // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")


  // 发布消息
  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    severityFrom(os.Args), // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_exchange_direct_logs.go(消息消费者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  "test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs"
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  exchangeType = "direct"
  //AMQP binding key
  bindingKey   = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = ""
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, exchangeType, queueName, bindingKey)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@exchangeType, exchangeType的类型direct|fanout|topic
//@queue, queue的名称
//@key , 绑定的key名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, exchangeType string, queue string, key string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  //创建一个exchange
  log.Printf("got Channel, declaring Exchange (%q)", exchange)
  err = channel.ExchangeDeclare(
    exchange,     // name of the exchange
    exchangeType, // type
    true,         // durable
    false,        // delete when complete
    false,        // internal
    false,        // noWait
    nil,          // arguments
  );
  failOnError(err, "Exchange Declare:")

  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      false,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      true,   // exclusive 当Consumer关闭连接时,这个queue要被deleted 
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  if len(os.Args) < 2 {
          log.Printf("Usage: %s [info] [warning] [error]", os.Args[0])
          os.Exit(0)
  }
  for _, s := range os.Args[1:] {
          log.Printf("Binding queue %s to exchange %s with routing key %s",
                  q.Name, exchange, s)
          //绑定到exchange
          err = channel.QueueBind(
            q.Name, // name of the queue
            s,        // bindingKey
            exchange,   // sourceExchange
            false,      // noWait
            nil,        // arguments
          );
          failOnError(err, "Failed to bind a queue")
  }

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf(" [x] %s", d.Body)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  查看结果


  Console1(Consumer),输出到文件:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_direct_logs.go warning error &> consumer_exchange_direct_logs.log

  Console2(Consumer),打印到控制台:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_direct_logs.go info warning error
2016/07/24 08:48:17 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 08:48:17 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 08:48:17 got Channel, declaring Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs")
2016/07/24 08:48:17 Binding queue amq.gen-vE-62-Lwt4VQYjlBbMLTjQ to exchange test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs with routing key info
2016/07/24 08:48:17 Binding queue amq.gen-vE-62-Lwt4VQYjlBbMLTjQ to exchange test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs with routing key warning
2016/07/24 08:48:17 Binding queue amq.gen-vE-62-Lwt4VQYjlBbMLTjQ to exchange test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs with routing key error
2016/07/24 08:48:17 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 08:48:17  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  使用Producer来发送消息:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_exchange_direct_logs.go error "Error. Error" && go run producer_exchange_direct_logs.go info "Info. Info" && go run producer_exchange_direct_logs.go warning "warning. warning"

  我们可以看到,在Console2控制台上能够看到error、info、waring的所有消息,而在文件中只能看到和error相关的消息。

5.7、Topic exchange

  对于Topic的exchange中Message的routing_key是有限制的,不能太随意。格式是以点号“."分割的字符表。比如:"stock.usd.nyse", "nyse.vmw", "quick.orange.rabbit"。你可以放任意的key在routing_key中,不过长度不能超过255 bytes。

  mshk.top

  对于routing_key,有两个特殊字符(在正则表达式里叫元字符)

  • * (星号) 代表任意 一个单词
  • # (hash哈希) 0个或者多个单词

  Topic exchange和其他exchange的区别,由于有"*"和"#", Topic exchange 非常强大并且可以转化为其他的exchange:

  • 如果binding_key 是 "#" - 它会接收所有的Message,不管routing_key是什么,就像是fanout exchange。
  • 如果 "*"和"#"没有被使用,那么topic exchange就变成了direct exchange。

  下面的代码中,我们将演示Topic的exchange使用"#"和"*"来匹配binding key。

  producer_exchange_topic_logs.go(消息生产者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "os"
  "strings"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  "test-idoall-exchange-direct-logs"
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  exchangeType = "fanout"
  //AMQP routing key
  routingKey   = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName    = "test-idoall-queues-direct"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
  bodyMsg := bodyFrom(os.Args)
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, exchangeName, exchangeType, routingKey, bodyMsg)
  log.Printf("published %dB OK", len(bodyMsg))
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "hello idoall.org"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@exchangeType, exchangeType的类型direct|fanout|topic
//@routingKey, routingKey的名称
//@body, 主体内容
func publish(amqpURI string, exchange string, exchangeType string, routingKey string, body string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()


  //创建一个queue
  log.Printf("got Channel, declaring %q Exchange (%q)", exchangeType, exchange)
  err = channel.ExchangeDeclare(
    exchange,     // name
    exchangeType, // type
    true,         // durable
    false,        // auto-deleted
    false,        // internal
    false,        // noWait
    nil,          // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")


  // 发布消息
  log.Printf("declared queue, publishing %dB body (%q)", len(body), body)
  err = channel.Publish(
    exchange,     // exchange
    routingKey, // routing key
    false,  // mandatory
    false,  // immediate
    amqp.Publishing {
      Headers:         amqp.Table{},
      ContentType: "text/plain",
      ContentEncoding: "",
      Body:        []byte(body),
    })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")
}

  consumer_exchange_topic_logs.go(消息消费者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  "test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs"
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  exchangeType = "topic"
  //AMQP binding key
  bindingKey   = ""
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName     = ""
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func main(){
    //调用消息接收者
    consumer(uri, exchangeName, exchangeType, queueName, bindingKey)
}

//接收者方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@exchangeType, exchangeType的类型direct|fanout|topic
//@queue, queue的名称
//@key , 绑定的key名称
func consumer(amqpURI string, exchange string, exchangeType string, queue string, key string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()

  //创建一个exchange
  log.Printf("got Channel, declaring Exchange (%q)", exchange)
  err = channel.ExchangeDeclare(
    exchange,     // name of the exchange
    exchangeType, // type
    true,         // durable
    false,        // delete when complete
    false,        // internal
    false,        // noWait
    nil,          // arguments
  );
  failOnError(err, "Exchange Declare:")


  //创建一个queue
  q, err := channel.QueueDeclare(
      queueName, // name
      false,   // durable
      false,   // delete when unused
      true,   // exclusive 当Consumer关闭连接时,这个queue要被deleted 
      false,   // no-wait
      nil,     // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  //绑定到exchange
  err = channel.QueueBind(
    q.Name, // name of the queue
    key,        // bindingKey
    exchange,   // sourceExchange
    false,      // noWait
    nil,        // arguments
  );
  failOnError(err, "Failed to bind a queue")

  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      false,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  //创建一个channel
  forever := make(chan bool)

  //调用gorountine
  go func() {
      for d := range msgs {
        log.Printf(" [x] %s", d.Body)
      }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  查看结果


  Console1(Consumer),接收所有的日志:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_topic_logs.go "#"
2016/07/24 09:28:29 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 09:28:29 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 09:28:29 got Channel, declaring Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs")
2016/07/24 09:28:29 Binding queue amq.gen-jW2-PIBg4izXpt96CynyFw to exchange test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs with routing key #
2016/07/24 09:28:29 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 09:28:29  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  Console2(Consumer),接收以"kern"开头的日志:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_topic_logs.go "kern.*"
2016/07/24 09:34:00 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 09:34:00 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 09:34:00 got Channel, declaring Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs")
2016/07/24 09:34:00 Binding queue amq.gen-8zYBz2uXYbWXcItJMZ3AQA to exchange test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs with routing key kern.*
2016/07/24 09:34:00 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 09:34:00  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  Console3(Consumer),接收第二个单词以"critical"结尾的日志:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_topic_logs.go "*.critical"
2016/07/24 09:37:21 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 09:37:21 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 09:37:21 got Channel, declaring Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs")
2016/07/24 09:37:21 Binding queue amq.gen-tq9QsD1i1mCps-jrqDtTTA to exchange test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs with routing key *.critical
2016/07/24 09:37:21 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 09:37:21  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  Console4(Consumer), 可以创建多个绑定关系:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run consumer_exchange_topic_logs.go "kern.critical" "A critical kernel error"
2016/07/24 09:39:35 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 09:39:35 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 09:39:35 got Channel, declaring Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs")
2016/07/24 09:39:35 Binding queue amq.gen-vcaHyCor5bbB2NX7YQhmzA to exchange test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs with routing key kern.critical
2016/07/24 09:39:35 Binding queue amq.gen-vcaHyCor5bbB2NX7YQhmzA to exchange test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs with routing key A critical kernel error
2016/07/24 09:39:35 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 09:39:35  [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C

  使用Producer来发送消息:

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run producer_exchange_topic_logs.go "kern.critical" "A critical kernel error"
2016/07/24 09:56:33 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 09:56:33 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 09:56:33 got Channel, declaring "topic" Exchange ("test-idoall-exchange-topic-logs")
2016/07/24 09:56:33 declared queue, publishing 23B body ("A critical kernel error")
2016/07/24 09:56:33  [x] Sent A critical kernel error
2016/07/24 09:56:33 published 23B OK

5.7、远程调用RPC

  之前的实例都是通过一个或多个Consumer来订阅消息,如果我们需要在远程机器上运行一个函数,来等待结果呢?这是一个不同的场景,例如做云计算。

  AMQP协议预定义了14个属性,大多数我们都很少用到,以下几个是比较常用的。

  • persistent:消息持久性
  • content_type:用来描述编码的MIME类型
  • reply_to:回调queue的名字
  • correlation_id:将远程RPC请求,进行关联的唯一标识

correlation_id

  如果为每个RPC的请求创建一个queue效率是非常低的,正常发送到queue的一个Message,它不知道是从哪里发过来的,而correlation_id属性的存在就是为每个请求设置一个唯一值,在回调接收消息的时候,也会带回这个属性进行匹配,如果不匹配,这个消息就不会被处理。

  接下来我们将使用RabbitMQ搭建一个RPC系统:一个客户端和一个可扩展的RPC服务器,RPC的工作流程如下:

  • 客户端启动时,创建一个匿名的exclusive callback queue
  • 客户端发送请求时,要带两个属性reply_to(设置回调的queue)和correlation_id(唯一标识)
  • 将请求发送到一个RPC queue
  • RPC的server端 ,一直在等待请求,当消息到达时会对过reply_to回复到指定的queue
  • 客户端在等queue从server的回调,检查 correlation_id是否一致,如果和请求时发送的一致,则做其他响应。

mshk.top

  rpc_server.go(服务端代码):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "strconv"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)


const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri          =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP queue name
  queueName =  "rpc-queue"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}


func main(){
  //调用发布消息函数
  publish(uri, queueName)
}

//发布者的方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@queue, queue的名称
func publish(amqpURI string, queue string){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()


  //创建一个queue
  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)
  q,err := channel.QueueDeclare(
          queue, // name
          false,       // durable
          false,       // delete when usused
          false,       // exclusive
          false,       // no-wait
          nil,         // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

  //均衡处理,每次处理一条消息
  err = channel.Qos(
          1,     // prefetch count
          0,     // prefetch size
          false, // global
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to set QoS")

  //订阅一个消息
  //log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
          q.Name, // queue
          "",     // consumer
          false,  // auto-ack
          false,  // exclusive
          false,  // no-local
          false,  // no-wait
          nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  forever := make(chan bool)

  // 发布消息
  go func() {
          for d := range msgs {
                  n, err := strconv.Atoi(string(d.Body))
                  failOnError(err, "Failed to convert body to integer")

                  log.Printf(" [.] server端接收到的数据是 (%d)", n)
                  response := n*2

                  err = channel.Publish(
                          "",        // exchange
                          d.ReplyTo, // routing key
                          false,     // mandatory
                          false,     // immediate
                          amqp.Publishing{
                                  ContentType:   "text/plain",
                                  CorrelationId: d.CorrelationId,
                                  Body:          []byte(strconv.Itoa(response)),
                          })
                  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")

                  d.Ack(false)
          }
  }()

  log.Printf(" [*] Awaiting RPC requests")

  //没有写入数据,一直等待读,阻塞当前线程,目的是让线程不退出
  <-forever
}

  consumer_exchange_topic_logs.go(消息消费者):

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "log"
  "math/rand"
  "os"
  "strconv"
  "strings"
  "time"
  "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

const (
  //AMQP URI
  uri           =  "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
  //Durable AMQP exchange name
  exchangeName =  ""
  //Exchange type - direct|fanout|topic|x-custom
  queueName = "rpc-queue"
)

//如果存在错误,则输出
func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
  if err != nil {
    log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
    panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
  }
}

func randomString(l int) string {
        bytes := make([]byte, l)
        for i := 0; i < l; i++ {
                bytes[i] = byte(randInt(65, 90))
        }
        return string(bytes)
}

func randInt(min int, max int) int {
        return min + rand.Intn(max-min)
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) int {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "30"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[1:], " ")
        }
        n, err := strconv.Atoi(s)
        failOnError(err, "Failed to convert arg to integer")
        return n
}

func main(){

    rand.Seed(time.Now().UTC().UnixNano())

    n := bodyFrom(os.Args)

    log.Printf(" [x] 请求的数据是(%d)", n)
    res, err := fibonacciRPC(n, uri, exchangeName, queueName)
    failOnError(err, "Failed to handle RPC request")

    log.Printf(" [.] 计算结果为 %d", res)
}

//RPC client调用方法
//
//@amqpURI, amqp的地址
//@exchange, exchange的名称
//@queue, queue的名称
func fibonacciRPC(n int, amqpURI string, exchange string, queue string) (res int, err error){
  //建立连接
  log.Printf("dialing %q", amqpURI)
  connection, err := amqp.Dial(amqpURI)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
  defer connection.Close()

  //创建一个Channel
  log.Printf("got Connection, getting Channel")
  channel, err := connection.Channel()
  failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
  defer channel.Close()


  //创建一个queue
  log.Printf("got queue, declaring %q", queue)
  q,err := channel.QueueDeclare(
          "", // name
          false,       // durable
          false,       // delete when usused
          true,       // exclusive
          false,       // no-wait
          nil,         // arguments
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")


  log.Printf("Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume")
  //订阅消息
  msgs, err := channel.Consume(
      q.Name, // queue
      "",     // consumer
      true,   // auto-ack
      false,  // exclusive
      false,  // no-local
      false,  // no-wait
      nil,    // args
  )
  failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

  corrId := randomString(32)


  err = channel.Publish(
          "",          // exchange
          queue, // routing key
          false,       // mandatory
          false,       // immediate
          amqp.Publishing{
                  ContentType:   "text/plain",
                  CorrelationId: corrId,
                  ReplyTo:       q.Name,
                  Body:          []byte(strconv.Itoa(n)),
          })
  failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")

  for d := range msgs {
          if corrId == d.CorrelationId {
                  res, err = strconv.Atoi(string(d.Body))
                  failOnError(err, "Failed to convert body to integer")
                  break
          }
  }

  return
}

  查看结果


  Console1(rpc server):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run rpc_server.go
2016/07/24 11:20:32 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 11:20:32 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 11:20:32 got queue, declaring "rpc-queue"
2016/07/24 11:20:32  [*] Awaiting RPC requests

  Console2(rpc client):

lion@node1:~/_code/_rabbitmq/_golang$ go run rpc_client.go 69
2016/07/24 11:24:37  [x] 请求的数据是(69)
2016/07/24 11:24:37 dialing "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/"
2016/07/24 11:24:37 got Connection, getting Channel
2016/07/24 11:24:37 got queue, declaring "rpc-queue"
2016/07/24 11:24:37 Queue bound to Exchange, starting Consume
2016/07/24 11:24:37  [.] 计算结果为 138

  以上只是简单实现了RPC的功能,如果你有复杂的需求,需要根据需求对Server和Client做调整。

6、写在后面

  业界对于消息传输有很多种方案,之前我们也介绍过KafkaKafka是Linkedin于2010年12月份开源的消息发布订阅系统,它主要用于处理活跃的流式数据,大数据量的数据处理上。RabbitMQ在吞吐量方面稍逊于kafka,他们的出发点不一样,RabbitMQ支持对消息的可靠的传递,支持事务,不支持批量的操作。

  RabbitMQ的消息应当尽可能的小,并且只用来处理实时且要高可靠性的消息。消费者和生产者的能力尽量对等,否则消息堆积会严重影响RabbitMQ的性能。

  本文实例代码在这里可以下载:点击下载

7、参考资料

http://www.rabbitmq.com/getstarted.html

https://github.com/streadway/amqp

8、FAQ

安装Erlang过程中出现提示configure: error: No curses library functions found

因为缺少缺少ncurses安装包,执行以下命令,即可解决:

lion@node1:~/$ sudo apt-get install libncurses5-dev

博文作者:迦壹
博客地址:Ubuntu14.04+RabbitMQ3.6.3+Golang的最佳实践
写作时间:2016-07-28 15:22
转载声明:可以转载, 但必须以超链接形式标明文章原始出处和作者信息及版权声明,谢谢合作!


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